Gum Ghatti

Gum Ghatti is the amorphous translucent exudate of the Anogeissus Latifolia tree of the Combretaceae family. The tree occurs throughout the greater part of India; more commonly in the dry deciduous forests. It is a large erect deciduous tree, 9-15 meters (sometimes 24 m) with a smooth light colored bark. The tree is leafless during the whole of the cold season; new leaves in April-May.

The gum, locally called Dhawda when first exuded is in a soft plastic form. The colour varies from whitish yellow to amber depending on factors like the proximity of the tear to the bark, the length of time it has remained on the tree before being picked and the age of the product in storage.

The exudates are hand picked by the locals, mostly tribal and laid to dry in the sun for several days. This picking activity is the root cause of the heterogeneity in commercial Gum Ghatti. The locals pick the gums not tree-wise but area-wise and so mix the gums of a large variety of locally growing trees. So hand sorting of individual lots becomes a necessity

Krystal Colloids Pvt. Ltd. processes Gum Ghatti in its newly set-up factory which is equipped with all modern machines and backed by qualified staff. Krystal Colloids Pvt. Ltd. has installed nearly all the major machines required for cleaning the raw gum. Modern Machines like Colour Sortex, ACM Pulveriser, Density Separator, Destoner, different kinds of Crushing Machines, etc., have been installed. The process includes drying, hand picking, sorting, removal of adhering bark, sand and cleaning, grinding, shifting, sieving, sizing, powdering and blending to obtain uniform grades of Gum. Our final product for export is either in lump form or powder where the gum is sized to 150 mesh or finer. During the process of particle breakdown, impurities are removed from the gum by sifting, aspiration and density tableseparation. Powdered Ghatti is light tan in colour and has bland taste and practically no odour

Gum Ghatti is a complex polysaccharide of high molecular weight. It occurs in nature as a mixed calcium, magnesium, potassium and sodium salt. Complete hydrolysis has shown that it is composed of L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-mannose, D-xylose and D-glucoronic acid in a molar ratio of 10:6:2:1:2 plus traces less than 1% of 6-deoxyhexose.

Gum Ghatti does not dissolve in water to give a clear solution but rather over 90% of the gum disperses in water to form a colloidal dispersion. At the same time it does not form a true gel. It forms viscous solutions at concentrations of about 5% or higher and exhibits typical non-Newtonian behaviour. Gum Ghatti is a moderately viscous gum lying intermediate between Arabic and Karaya. This viscosity profile gives it a unique status in the spectrum of hydrocolloids. The emulsifying properties of Gum Ghatti are excellent and considered to be better than Gum Arabic and thus used in more difficult-to- handle systems The normal pH of the dispersion is 4.8. Gum Ghatti solutions are sensitive to alkali.Viscosity increases sharply with pH upto a maximum at about pH 8 and above that the solutions tend to become stringy. At all pHs, upon aging viscosity increases noticeably over time. The addition of sodium salts (sodium carbonate, sodium chloride) produces a typical viscosity reducing effect of simple electrolytes on a polymer.Gum Ghatti solutions require preservatives since they are subject to bacterial attack. They are easily preserved with a mixture of a maximum of 0.17% methyl and 0.03% propyl o-hydroxybenzoate as well as with glycerin and propylene glycol. Benzoic acid, sodium acid as well as sodium benzoate at 0.1% concentration are effective preservatives.


Following are some of the applications of Gum Ghatti:

  As an emulsifier and stabilizer in beverages and butter containing table syrups.
  As a flavour fixative for specific applications.
  Used in the preparation of powdered, stable, oil-soluble vitamins.
  As a binder in long-fibered light weight papers.
  As an emulsifier of petroleum and non petroleum waxes to form liquid and wax paste emulsions.
  Used in combination with polyacrylamide to aid in the polymerization and formation of uniform and discrete prills of cross-linked polystrene.
  Used as drilling mud conditioner and the acidizing of oil wells.
  Used in powdered explosives to improve resistance to water damage.

Krystal Colloids Pvt. Ltd. offers different grades of Ghatti to suit different applications. The grades vary from one another in terms of colour, solubility, viscosity, BFOM and total ash content. Krystal Colloids Pvt. Ltd. offers 5 main grades which are as follows:





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